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I'm attempting to make a hard refractory cement to apply over kiln brick made of sodium silicate and Perlite. This creates a very good kiln brick, however they are susceptible to abrasion. I've been making my own sodium silicate, and thought I might be able to make it harder with the addition of some oxides.

I added silica gel and water; then I added magnesium oxide and sodium hydroxide. There was a extremely strong exothermic reaction.

What would this be called? I imagine it's called something like $\ce{Na2SiO4Mg}$. Tomorrow I will try some combinations of sodium silicate with Aluminum Oxide, and magnesium oxide. What would these be called?

If you have a recipe for a hard refractory cement to protect the Perlite mix from abrasion I would appreciate the input.

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I imagine it's called something like $\ce{Na2SiO4Mg}$. Tomorrow I will try some combinations of sodium silicate with Aluminum Oxide, and magnesium oxide. What would these be called?

Much simplier than that. Sodium hydroxide dissolves incredibly exothermally:

$$\ce{NaOH (s) -> NaOH (aq)}\qquad{\mathrm{\Delta} H = \pu{-44.5 kJ mol-1}}$$

This is what heated your mixture.

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