Look at the free resource provided at MatWeb.
Under the Physical Properties tab, you can choose up to 3 of them from a rather extensive list, including hardness. For example, I chose "Carbon" and "Hardness, Rockwell R," and 25 results were returned.
Under the Alloy Composition tab, you can choose up to 3 elements and percentages for your alloy, and see if you get a hit. I chose "Nonferrous Metal" and carbon (minimum 5%, maximum 75%) and silicon (minimum 5%, maximum 75%), and got one hit.
I believe for your purposes, you can assemble a list of materials by hardness and strength (I'm not a metallurgist either, so you might have to do some research on which of the hardness and strength metrics you'll need to choose) and/or by selecting by composition (again, you might need to research which 2- and 3-element combinations make sense and which ones don't).