Michael's answer is very good, i'll just simplify
I understand that X-ray images are black and white.
No, it's clear, then black and clear. Not white. When they are on a white background e.g. white table or white wall, they show as white and black.
If they were on a purple background then they'd show up as black and purple (purple bones). Because the clear part of the xray takes the colour of the background the xray image is on. But it's clear and black.
And re what makes the film go black, the film itself doesn't, but the exposed silver on it does.
You have the
X-rays themselves, the white film, and an object/person in-between.
The X-rays themselves, the clear film, and an object/person in-between
Apparently clear/transparent film may come in a few background colours can be grey, can be purple, can be amber.. i've seen amber transparent colour film (that's the case with colour films used by photographers, and may or may not be the case with a photographers films for black and white photos, and the films used in xrays). The ones for black and white photos, and for xrays, may be grey
The CLEAR parts of the image are bones and/or things the X-rays couldn't get through (e.g. tumours), the clear parts of film remain clear,
and the black parts [on the film] is where the xrays hit
The film is covered in a kind of silver particles, silver halide.
The silver can be blackened by xrays or light..
It seems that technically, most of the rays hitting the silver are light, because in order to require less dosage of radiation, the scientists thought of using a fluorescent material, the xrays pass through that and the fluorescent material converts the xrays into visible light, it absorbs the xrays and emits visible light.
Fluorescent material does that(material with fluorescent phosphors). For example some "invisible ink" is florescent, it lights up when UV light is shone on it. It takes the high energy photons/short wavelength waves and absorbs it and emits lower energy photons/longer wavelength waves/visible light. Wikipedia says most fluorescent material converts that way, high energy to low energy.
In addition to flurescent material, there is also phosphorescent material, it has phosphorescent phosphurs,which keeps the light stored for some time.
The parts of the silver metal on the film that will be darkened, will be darkened mostly by light, and partly by xrays, since there's more light than xrays hitting it.
The clear parts of the image are bones and/or things the X-rays
couldn't get through, the clear film remains clear, and the black part
is where the X-rays did pass through, and it blackens the clear film.
It blackens the silver on the film, not the film itself. The film itself is a clear film with silver on it.
The film though is predevelopment.. And predevelopment, the entire film is covered in silver.
The parts of the silver that got hit with xrays or light, will go black. And change in form from silver halides to metalling silver, and they won't get washed away in development. The parts of the silver that didn't get hit, will get washed away during the development.
I've also heard that they have a cassette/casing, and in that is
fluorescent material or coating and film. The X-rays hit the
fluorescent material and (I guess by absorption and reflection, or
absorption and emission) converts it into regular light, and there is
a phosphorescent material/coating there, too, so the light remains for
a while, and the light, I guess, blackens the film.
yeah I suppose so. And the light blackens the silver on the film not the film itself.
You ask about the materials used for xray film and regular photographic film.. Apparently the differences are minor.. And in both cases the film is clear.
He showed a colour photographic film that was amber/orange, and transparent.
The black and white one maybe is clear like regular glass is clear..I don't know if it has any slight colour at all but even if it did, it's transparent no question about it.
I think maybe the term "negative" doesn't apply with xrays. Because in regular photography the rays bounce off the subject rather than through the subject, and with a normal camera and film, what is light comes out dark and what is dark comes out light, hence it's called a negative.
Another thing that happens, (at least with regular photopgraphy, perhaps not with xrays), is the negative is turned into a positive.. And that's done by taking a picture of the negative (A), making a negative of the negative, which is a positive (B). I believe that's done with an enlarger that also enlarges it. The silver is dense and blocks the light. The fact that silver on A is black is irrelevant, since it's the denseness that blocks the light to produce B.
Michael mentions about the denseness of the silver, but I don't think it's relevant to the xray..in making a new image, but I think he means you'd get little clear areas / specks that aren't black in the xray if the silver wasn't dense, but it is dense.. So the denseness and the blackness helps there in the black parts of the xray image appearing black.