You can't - at least if the only information you have is just the bond energy.
The problem you're running up against here is the difference between thermodynamics and kinetics. The difference can sometimes be subtle, but (roughly) thermodynamics is normally concerned with state functions, whereas kinetics deals with the process of interconversion of states.
The bond enthalpy is a thermodynamic quantity. It's based off a state function. It's the free energy difference between the bond-broken and bond-formed states. It doesn't matter how you go from the bond-formed to bond-broken states, the free energy difference is the same. In order to calculate it, you only need to know information about the two endpoints, not the details about the states which connect them.
In contrast, reaction rates are kinetic quantities. The rate of reaction is highly dependent on the path (reaction mechanism and conditions) you take to interconvert the states. You can't tell anything about the path if all you have is thermodynamic information about the two end points.
That said, you can theoretically calculate reaction rates if you have additional information about the path you're taking. Most notably you would need to know the activation energy of the reaction you're interested in. This is different from the bond energy, and is related to the free energy of the transition state, the hypothetical high-energy intermediate along the reaction pathway. If you have the activation energy along with some other information for a single-step reaction, you can calculate reaction rates for various temperatures with the Arrhenius equation.
Again, these rates are highly dependent on the exact mechanism of the reaction you're examining. Single step versus multi-step, radical versus electron pair transfer mechanisms, the presence of catalysts, etc. all can change the activation energies of the various steps and the reaction rates. So there is no way to give a general answer about bond breakage rates.