The current version of Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry – IUPAC Recommendations and Preferred Names 2013 (Blue Book) reads as follows:
P-14.5 ALPHANUMERICAL ORDER
Alphanumerical order has been commonly called ‘alphabetical order’. As these ordering principles do involve ordering both letters and numbers, in a strict sense, it is best called ‘alphanumerical order’ in order to convey the message that both letters and numbers are involved
Alphanumerical order is used to establish the order of citation of detachable substituent prefixes (not the detachable saturation prefixes, hydro and dehydro), and the numbering of a chain, ring, or ring system when a choice is possible.
P-14.5.1 Simple prefixes (i.e., those describing atoms and unsubstituted substituents) are arranged alphabetically; multiplicative prefixes, if necessary, are then inserted and do not alter the alphabetical order already established.
Therefore, the correct alphanumerical order of citation in your example corresponds to the name ‘x-chloro-y-methoxyethane’.
When several structural features appear in cyclic and acyclic compounds, low locants are assigned to them in the following decreasing order of seniority:
(f) detachable alphabetized prefixes, all considered together in a series of increasing numerical order;
(g) lowest locants for the substituent cited first as a prefix in the name;
Note that Rule f takes precedence over Rule g.
According to Rule f, the name of the given compound could be ‘1-chloro-2-methoxyethane’ as well as ‘2-chloro-1-methoxyethane’ since both names correspond to the locant set ‘1,2’ (all prefixes considered together in a series of increasing numerical order).
According to Rule g, however, the compound is named as ‘1-chloro-2-methoxyethane’ rather than ‘2-chloro-1-methoxyethane’ since ‘chloro’ is cited first as a prefix in the name.