# Minimising the formation of manganese dioxide in the titration of potassium permanganate

For a titration of potassium permanganate into a standard acidified solution of hydrated iron (II) ammonium sulfate, the solution seems to end up brown (due to the formation of manganese dioxide) during the titration unless the titration is carried out extremely slowly. How can I minimise this? Adding sulfuric acid to the solution seemed to help, but is there a physical way to prevent manganese dioxide forming when the titrant is added too rapidly?

Adding a large excess of acid helps greatly as the reduction to $\ce{MnO2}$ only takes place under neutral conditions. $$\ce{2H2O + MnO4- + 3e- -> MnO2 + 4OH-}$$ Under acidic conditions the $\ce{MnO4-}$ is reduced all the way to $\ce{Mn^{2+}}$.$$\ce{8H+ + MnO4- + 5e- -> Mn^{2+} + 4H2O}$$ Also swirling or stirring the solution as you are titrating makes a big difference as it stops the area where the permanganate is being added from becoming temporarily depleted of acid.Even if you do get some $\ce{MnO2}$ forming then as long as you have enough acid in the flask a few swirls should be enough to reduce the $\ce{MnO2}$ down to $\ce{Mn^{2+}}$.