# How are piezoelectric crystals made?

I want to know how the powdered formed of piezoelectric material is converted to crystal like used in quartz watches. I know that some more chemicals are mixed with the material and then it is pressed in form of tuning fork (for clocks) at particular temperature and pressure. So what are the chemicals, temperature and pressure which are used. How they are made to vibrate at that particular frequency?

• Are you asking about how to prepare the ceramic materials PZT, or asking about the binder added to the the prepared PZT in order to process it? – Yomen Atassi Jun 4 '15 at 9:11
• Also remember that making piezoelectric quartz (which is intrinsically a polar crystal) is a bit different than making piezoelectric PZT (which is intrinsically a symmetric crystal). – Geoff Hutchison Jun 4 '15 at 13:07

You can easily grow your own Rochelle salt (potassium sodium tartrate, $\ce{KNaC4H4O6·4H2O}$) piezoelectric crystals. Rochelle salt was commonly used in inexpensive crystal headphones and phonograph cartridges. The raw materials are household chemicals and the directions are straightforward. Again, these crystals are grown, not hot pressed.