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I know that oxidanes are oxygen chains and rings. For example trioxidane is $\ce{HO-O-OH}$. I can see this turning into $\ce{O2}$ and $\ce{H2O}$ like hydrogen peroxide does. Since the double bonds in $\ce{O2}$ are strong do oxygen compounds without nitrogen ever explode?

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    $\begingroup$ Important examples of explosives with no nitrogen are organic peroxides, which are commonly formed upon ageing of ether solvents. Organic peroxides are highly sensitive to detonation when concentrated, and many accidents and injuries have happened in labs while evaporating ether solvents too far. $\endgroup$ – Nicolau Saker Neto May 31 '15 at 11:08
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    $\begingroup$ Explosion doesn't even have to produce gas - en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copper%28I%29_acetylide $\endgroup$ – Mithoron May 31 '15 at 13:22
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They do indeed explode. Oxyliquits are probably the most comprehensive example of liquid-oxygen-based primary explosives (which are considered obsolete today). Theoretically liquid oxygen can also be substituted with ozone-oxygen mixture, which in reality has never been utilized due to technical difficulties -- oxyliquits were popular in the beginning of 20th century.

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Yes, famously acetone peroxide (which can be made by mixing hydrogen peroxide with acetone) is an explosive that does not contain nitrogen. It is believed to be an entropic explosive, in that the decomposition isn't driven by oxidation, instead it's driven by the decomposition of acetone peroxide into ozone and acetone.

Dioxygen difluoride will probably also decompose explosively at room temperature, but if you are doing anything with dioxygen difluoride, you have other things to worry about; for instance, it will react with basically anything.

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