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Why is the pH of a buffer solution measured before measuring the pH of an unknown solution?
I do not have any idea about it. I had read a chapter about ionic equilibrium and electrochemistry, but have not been able to find out an answer.

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In principle, you should know the pH of the buffer solution. Measuring it before an unknown sample is a straightforward way of calibrating the detector (pH detectors can get a bit funny after a while).

If you put the detector into a pH 5.5 solution and it reads 7, you're going to have to tweak the detector (if possible) or find another.

Measuring unknown samples with a detector that incorrectly measures a known buffer solution is a bad idea but an even worse idea would be to measure unknown samples without knowing your detector was incorrect in the first place.

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