The polarity of a single bond might indeed be the same for some different molecules. When speaking of polarity of molecules however, the whole molecule should be taken into account, since the macro properties are dictated by all the parts of a molecule.
Regarding the fatty acids: The 'head' of such a molecule is indeed polar, and in specific cases this means that the interactions and reactivity will be like polar molecules. This effect however is only contained to the head of the molecule. Fatty acids as a whole are still considered non-polar because this type of molecule will not be dissolved in water. Note that the main reason for this is not due to the interactions of water with the fatty acid. The fatty acid is just as 'happy' interacting with water as it is with other fatty acid chains. Water, on the other end, does not 'want' to interact with fatty acids, since it will have to rearrange around the fatty acid molecule to ensure the same number of hydrogen bonds are made. This is an entropic cost, that makes the total Gibbs Free Energy change unfavorable.
The result is that water molecules do not rearrange the hydrogen bonds with other water molecules and the fatty acids interact with each other. Due to this effect, water not being willing to rearrange hydrogen bonds, fatty acids are considered non-polar.
Hope this has helped, and if I used to much terminology or jargon, please let me know!