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Most resources on pH and the electrochemistry behind it that I've found are IMHO too superficial. For example, they explain that an electrode with less than 80% slope should be discarded, but not why the decrease in slope happens, or why it's a problem if you can just calibrate it. Or they explain the potential generated at the Ag/AgCl eletrode and the glass membrane potential, but not the interaction between the two - does the H+ combine with the e- from the electrode? And what happens if the current is reversed? After reading for a few days I still feel like I don't understand any of it.

So far I've read a couple PDFs on nico2000.net (the 30 page Introduction to pH measurements), the 160 page book pH Measurements by C. Westcott (1978), a few manufacturer's guides to pH measurement theory and practice (by Radiohm, Emerson, Mettler) and the relevant chapters in the Analytical Chemistry books that my library had.

All help appreciated!

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Looks like you understand pH measurement, but you are trying to go deeper into the details of potentiometry and open circuit potential measurements.

There I would recommend basic electrochemistry texts. Here is one simple book that is cheap, easy to read and very informational:

Electrode Potentials; Richard G. Compton and Giles H. W. Sanders

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