I am doing a research and experiment on using Graphene oxide for deicing. My purpose is to coat graphene oxide on the surface of the ship in the north and south pole where large amount of large size ice cubes and icebergs are present. So when voltage is applied to it, it can generate a large amount of heat to melt the ice but the amount of heat must not be significant enough to vaporize the water to steam.

So, the problem is: As you know graphene oxide has a very high resistance. So there must be some process or material that can enhance the conductivity of the graphene oxide. What is it? In other words, is there a process that can enhance the conductivity of graphene?


Addressing the problem of high resistance, we can identify that the resistivity derives from the oxidation of graphene, changing $sp^2$ carbons to $sp^3$ in the lattice, which increases the band gap, and creates an insulator. There are a number of answers to this question that could be correct, including simply mixing another, more conductive material in the synthesis, but since the question seems to imply that the material has already been synthesized and simply needs to be reduced, removing the oxygen, creating reduced graphene oxide (rGO). One simple approach is through thermal annealing, where GO is reduced by a heat treatment.

You can read more about the reduction of graphene oxide here.


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