How to make "Aqua Regia" in the lab conditions? Which lab equipment must be used?


Typically, 1 part of concentrated nitric acid is added to 3 parts of concentrated hydrochloric acid.

  1. Personal protection (goggles, gloves, lab coat) is vital.
  2. Prepare and use it under a well-vented fumehood only - hands inside the fumehood, head outside!


The comment of Crystal Lettuce is very important and points to a crucial aspect:

Aqua regia isn't a mixture to keep bottled on the shelf: it has to be prepared and used immediately!

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    $\begingroup$ I would like to add: The vessel you prepare it in, should not be closed for several hours after combining the acids. A large amount of gas is produced which led to accidents in the past. $\endgroup$ Mar 13 '15 at 14:14
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    $\begingroup$ Indeed, it should be prepared in small amounts and only what's needed for a particular procedure (or cleaning). Even after use, the remaining material is highly potent. $\endgroup$ Mar 13 '15 at 15:29
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    $\begingroup$ There are also multiple guides to handling aqua regia safely. Notably, use only glass containers, funnels, etc. and add the nitric acid slowly to the HCl in the hood. The acids will become very hot. Neutralize with weak base (e.g., sodium bicarbonate) slowly. $\endgroup$ Mar 13 '15 at 15:33
  • $\begingroup$ I want to add that aqua regia will eat most latex and nitrile gloves. You will want some think butyl gloves for this. $\endgroup$
    – Ben Norris
    Mar 14 '15 at 0:10

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