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I'd like to know why my $\ce{TiO2}$ sol gel did not get coated nicely on my 200 gsm fiberglass? Here my solution, 5 g of tween 80, 40.15 ml isopropanol, 3.4 ml titanium isopropoxide, 0.62 ml sulphuric acid (0.02 mol). Beside that, my $\ce{TiO2}$ sol gel can't calcinated at 500°C. It will turn into powders and get burned into a black colour. What should I do to overcome this problem?

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  • Regarding why your ceramic material did not get coated nicely on the fiberglass, I think there's a problem of adherence between the fibers and the the ceramic. You need to prepare the surface of the fibers by etching for example before coating. They are often shielded.
  • Regarding why your sol-gel can't be calcinated at $500°\mathrm{C}$. You need to figure out the proper temperature of calcination by monitoring the phase appearance of the ceramic materials by XRD diffractometry. You start with the XRD diffractogram of your as-prepared sample(normally, it should be amorphous). Then, you treat your sample at different temperatures within different periods of times (you have two parameters to find: Temperature and Time). Unless you are working on a published article that has addressed all these issues.
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