- Is there a clear distinction between each and every one of these interactions? For example: isn't hydrogen bond a private case of VdW? aren't ionic bonds and hydrophobic interactions private cases of dipole-dipole interaction?
- Is there one single chart that differentiates all of these types of interaction?
No, there aren't clear distinctions, particularly between intramolecular and intermolecular interactions.
First, a caveat that we generally divide molecules along covalent bonds. So those are strictly intramolecular, in my opinion. (Network solids are a bit tricky to classify.)
Let's go through the rest one at a time.
Dipole-dipole: These are usually intermolecular, but certainly in larger, more flexible molecules, intramolecular polar-polar interactions can change the molecular shape and preferred conformation. (Think about tying together two bar magnets on one piece of string. Certainly they'll interact.)
Hydrogen bonds: Yes, many of these are intermolecular. However, there definitely are intramolecular hydrogen bonds:
- Van der Waals: Again, these can be intermolecular. In even a moderate molecule, intramolecular non-bonded van der Waals interactions can change conformations and geometries. Consider axial/equitorial preferences in cyclohexanes or other types of "steric clashes" because of big bulky groups. These are the effects of van der Waals interactions.
OK, so all the intermolecular interactions are also intramolecular ones too.
Hydrophobic interactions: I usually think of these as intermolecular but similar considerations make sense as intramolecular for the reasons I outline under van der Waals interactions above.
Ionic: I'll just think of these as different partial charges in a molecule. Clearly electrostatic interactions occur both inside a molecule (e.g., electrostatic non-bonded interactions changing conformations and geometries) and as intermolecular forces, e.g., water-cation interactions.
So besides covalent interactions, which we use to divide "inside" and "outside" a molecule, all of these are both intermolecular and intramolecular interactions.
I'm not sure I've seen a great chart. Maybe someone else can comment.