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Some ion-selective electrodes can be expensive (starting from $500). Is there any relatively inexpensive do-it-yourself alternatives that would still give very accurate results? How does one make an ion-selective electrode?

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Ion selective electrodes are a group of electrodes that are very different from each other.

The common bits are, a selective membrane, a "sensing" electrode and a reference electrode to measure against.

The details of the membrane and sensing electrode depend highly on what selective electrode you are trying to build.

Here is an old patent on a Cl selective electrode for reference: http://www.google.com/patents/US3740326

Regarding getting accurate results with a DIY: this really depends on which electrode you are trying to build. In the Cl example, I don't see any reason why a DIY would perform worse.

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