You need to investigate the safety and handling of every chemical you use in your experiments individually. The handling and safety precautions can be very different depending on what substances exactly you use.
In terms of fire, the one thing you must know before each experiment is which methods won't work or even fail catastrophically. Trying to extinguish a sodium fire with water is a really, really bad idea, and that is something you must know in advance.
Metal fires are the most common kind of fire where you have to be careful about choosing the right method. Some metal fires can't even be extinguished by carbon dioxide. There are special fire extinguishers for this (class D), other methods might not work.
A bucket of sand is the most useful method for small fires in a lab. It works for almost everything and doesn't cause a big mess. But it is obviously useless if you cause a bigger fire and can't reliably cover it with sand anymore.
Powder extinguishers cause quite a mess, you'll spend a lot of time cleaning up the room afterwards. Obviously this is a lot better than burning down your home, but I wouldn't use them for small fires you could stop with some sand.
Foam and powder are probably the most useful general-purpose extinguishers. Carbon dioxide is a bit trickier to use from what I heard, I probably wouldn't recommend it in your case.
Thinking about a fire extinguisher is a good first step. Another thing I very strongly recommend is that you read up on general safety procedures in the lab. Simple things like not storing large amounts of solvent directly in your fume hood (or workplace) might prevent a small fire from becoming a dangerously large one. Knowing that you need to inactivate any reactive reagents before disposing them might save you from throwing away some oxidizing agent and accidentally setting your waste on fire. There is a lot more to chemical safety than just choosing the right fire extinguisher.