I have one gallon of commercial, surfactant free, ammonium hydroxide solution that I would like to use to prepare a concentrated solution.
I have two options as I see it, and I am still getting into the chemistry side (amateur chemistry), but am pushing ahead and want to do this even without the understanding. I am hoping the solutions will provide adequate explanation as to what is being done, and why, which will help me learn to solve problems like this in the future. Chemistry newbie, here.
Solubility at room temperature is to be assumed.
I see that I have two options.
1) Prepare a receiving flask with cold distilled water (likely in an ice bath) and then prepare a distillation flask with the %10 ammonium hydroxide solution. Slightly heat the distillation flask to the point where the ammonia gas begins to off-gas, which is funneled into the receiving flask and dissolve.
2) Prepare a receiving flask and distillation flask both with an amount of the 10% ammonium hydroxide solution. As above, gently heat the distillation flask to off-gas the ammonia into the receiving flask where it should dissolve, and increase the concentration beyond 10%.
Since I would like a 1 liter solution containing 28% NH3(aq), what volume of cold distilled water should be placed in the receiving flask, which I ask because I assume the solvation of NH3 into water will cause the volume to increase. If I placed 1 liter of water into the flask initially, then this would result in more than 1 liter of solution. This also depends on the amount of ammonia that needs to be dissolved to reach my desired concentration, which varies from option #1 to #2.
So what I want to know is,
Q1) How to determine the volume of a solution given a specific concentration of NH3(aq). This will allow me to account for the increase in volume when adding ammonia to an existing solution, in order to reach a desired concentration.
Q2) How do I know when I have reach %28 NH3(aq) concentration?
Q3) A procedure leading from 10% to 28%, and any advice on more technically correct approaches to this problem. Is it a problem that should be considering molarity, etc.?
Q4) Any quick background info that I can look up to help me understand this problem would be welcome!
Bottom line: Prepare a 1 liter solution of 28% NH3(aq) from 1 gallon of 10% NH3(aq), and please provide an explanation.
Thank you for any help. I am a software programmer, and have delved into he world of chemistry as a hobby, and am getting confused by terms like molarity, normality, and both of those versus concentration, etc. It's maddening to say the least.