The Friedel-Crafts alkylation is another example of an electrophilic aromatic substitution. I've drawn the mechanism below showing the formation of cyclohexylbenzene. The reaction is typically run in the presence of an acid and the aluminum chloride serves as a catalyst to enhance the electrophilic properties of the proton, at the end of the reaction the aluminum chloride has been regenerated.
In the insert box I've shown that when the reaction is carried out with n-propylchloride isopropyl benzene is produced, not n-propylbenzene. A carbocation intermediate is generated in thr Friedel-Crafts alkylation and will rearrange to a more stable carbocation if possible. In the cyclohexene case, rearrangement of the intermediate carbocation just regenerates the same cyclohexyl carbocation, so the rearrangement is "invisible" in this case (unless we label the starting cyclohexene).