According to the definition of dative bonding electrons are shared which are given by one of the atoms, so if the electrons are shared so how come there is charge on the elements in the dative bonding?


To begin with, the term "dative bond" is not used anymore. It has been replaced by "coordinate bond" :

Let's have an example of this kind of bond.

Ammonium ion

As you can see, this kind of bond occurs when an atom is giving two electrons from itself to form the bond. The typical coordinate bond is the $\ce {N}$ already bonded with $\ce {3H}$ forming a bond with a proton. Since the proton has no electron, the $\ce {N}$ atom has to fully give one of his electron from his remaining doublet to form the bond. But to respect the charge equality, you had a positive charge at the begining, no electrons were added or removed from the system, so the positive charge should remains on the final molecular edifice.

The question is, where is located this positive charge ? One could start thinking this charge is located on the $\ce {N}$ atom since it is giving an electron. But actually, the $\ce {N}$ atom has a greater electronegativity than the $\ce {H}$ atom, that's say its hability to attract electrons is greater. Therefore the positive charge remaining should be equaly distributed over all the $\ce {4H}$ since they are equivalent.

But, altogether, the net charge of the edifice will be $+1$.


It's formal charge - it often doesn't mean there are full charges like in zwitterions but dative bonds are usually strongly polarised.


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