# What do the numbers in the preferred IUPAC name for ascorbic acid mean?

If I look up the IUPAC name of ascorbic acid, I find this: (5R)-[(1S)-1,2-Dihydroxyethyl]-3,4-dihydroxyfuran-2(5H)-one.

I am used to numbering of molecules in a way like the 3,4-dihydroxyfuran part in this molecule name. But now what I want to know is: what do the 5R, 1S and 5H parts signify?

For the 5H I came up with this: furan has two double bonds, so the H might signify that this is not the case any more, because if there is an extra H at the fifth position, this would be impossible. This can be seen in the IUPAC name of 2-furanone: 5H-furan-2-one. I don't know though if this assumption is correct, also because in 5H-furan-2-one the 5H is before the furan part and in 3,4-dihydroxyfuran-2(5H)-one it is after (shouldn't it be 2(3,4-dihydroxy-5H)-furanone anyway?)

Fact is that I can't find an explanation for the 5R, nor the 1S (as I see no sulfur). Could anyone explain me these weird molecule numberings?

The numbering of (R)-5-[(S)-1,2-dihydroxyethyl]-3,4-dihydroxyfuran-2(5​H)-one has four parts:

## 4) Italicized element symbols

The italic element symbol H denotes indicated or added hydrogen.

• Using the PIN mentioned in the question would be much nicer ;) – mykhal Oct 4 '18 at 8:33