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Is benzene carbaldehyde a correct name for Benzaldehyde? I'm (always) getting confused between common and IUPAC names. If the above name is correct then is it a common one or IUPAC? And why don't we use it more often?

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Both are IUPAC names, but used in different situations. For a 1 carbon aldehyde attached to a benzene, the one that must be used is benzaldehyde.

Aldehydes ($\ce{R-CHO}$) take the suffix "-al". If other functional groups are present, the chain is numbered such that the aldehyde carbon is in the "1" position, unless functional groups of higher precedence are present.

If a prefix form is required, "oxo-" is used (as for ketones), with the position number indicating the end of a chain: $\ce{CHOCH2COOH}$ is 3-oxopropanoic acid. If the carbon in the carbonyl group cannot be included in the attached chain (for instance in the case of cyclic aldehydes), the prefix "formyl-" or the suffix "-carbaldehyde" is used: $\ce{C6H11CHO}$ is cyclohexanecarbaldehyde. If an aldehyde is attached to a benzene and is the main functional group, the suffix becomes benzaldehyde.

For example, this guy would be cyclohex-2-ene-1-carbaldehyde:

enter image description here

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Both names, ‘benzenecarbaldehyde’ and ‘benzaldehyde’, are unambiguous and describe the same compound. However, the preferred IUPAC name (PIN) is ‘benzaldehyde’.

Concerning aldehydes, the current version of Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry – IUPAC Recommendations and Preferred Names 2013 (Blue Book) reads as follows:

P-66.6.1 Systematic names of aldehydes

Aldehydes are systematically named in three ways:

(1) substitutively, using the suffixes ‘al’ for $\ce{-(C)HO}$ and ‘carbaldehyde’ for $\ce{-CHO}$;

(2) by changing the ‘ic acid’ or ‘oic acid’ endings of retained names of carboxylic acids into ‘aldehyde’; the nomenclatural properties of acids are transferred to aldehydes; thus, preferred names of aldehydes correspond to preferred names of acids, and carboxylic acids that are not substitutable generate nonsubstitutable aldehydes;

(3) by using the prefixes ‘oxo’, denoting $\ce{=O}$, or ‘formyl-’, denoting the substituent group $\ce{-CHO}$.

In particular,

P-66.6.1.1.3 The suffix ‘carbaldehyde’ is used when the $\ce{-CHO}$ group is attached to a carbon atom of a ring or ring system, or to a heteroatom.

For example, ‘cyclohexanecarbaldehyde’ is a PIN.

cyclohexanecarbaldehyde

However, according to P-66.6.1.2.1, the PIN for the compound given in the question is ‘benzaldehyde’. (This name is analogous to the preferred name of the corresponding acid ‘benzoic acid’, see P-66.6.1 (2) above.)

benzaldehyde

Nevertheless, according to P-66.6.1.2.2, the PINs for phthalaldehyde and terephthalaldehyde are the systematic names ‘benzene-1,2-dicarbaldehyde’ and ‘benzene-1,4-dicarbaldehyde’, respectively. (These names are analogous to the preferred names of the corresponding acids ‘benzene-1,2-dicarboxylic acid’ [not ‘phthalic acid’] and ‘benzene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid’ [not ‘terephthalic acid’], respectively.)

benzene-1,2-dicarbaldehyde   benzene-1,4-dicarbaldehyde

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