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It is well known that copper sulfate, sodium sulfate, et al crystallize with 5,10 water molecules of hydration, locked in their crystal lattices. Is it possible to have other molecules instead of water, such as maybe ammonia or hydrogen sulfide?

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    $\begingroup$ Ammonia, yes. Lower alcohols, sometimes. H2S... never heard of such, but then again, I don't know everything. $\endgroup$ Sep 26, 2023 at 7:29
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    $\begingroup$ $\ce{CaCl2}$ is known to form $\ce{CaCl2 . 6 H2O}$, $\ce{CaCl2 . 4 CH3OH}$, $\ce{CaCl2 . 3 CH3CH2OH}$, what is the reason, why this very good desiccant cannot be used for drying of ethanol (unless one wants to lose a lot of it. $\endgroup$
    – Poutnik
    Sep 26, 2023 at 8:08
  • $\begingroup$ Ammoniates - chemistry.stackexchange.com/questions/158408/… $\endgroup$ Sep 26, 2023 at 10:02
  • $\begingroup$ Acetone and sodium iodide: doi.org/10.1039/CT9130301255 $\endgroup$ Sep 27, 2023 at 11:03

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An examplle used for disinfection and synthesis is the compound of urea with hydrogen peroxide, $\ce{CO(NH2)2•H2O2}$. This is a shelf-stable source of hydrogen peroxide that readily releases the peroxide when dissolved in water.

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    $\begingroup$ Similar, Sodium Percarbonate: 2(Na2C03) . 3(H2O2) $\endgroup$
    – nigel222
    Sep 27, 2023 at 13:47
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Yes! Crystals with different solvents included are called, unsurprisingly, as 'Solvates'. You can also just have a crystal of multiple molecules together and these are called 'Cocrystals'

A good, Open source paper on this published in the Journal 'Crystal Growth and Design' which is published by the American Chemical Society: https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.cgd.6b00200

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