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Hello I was researching a little about term symbols of lanthanides and transition metals and have got two questions.

It is known that lanthanides don’t follow LS-coupling, but instead JJ-coupling. Does that mean that the term symbols for the rare earth (III) cations in the famous Diecke diagram are formed by JJ-coupling? I am asking because the ground state term symbols for lanthanides are found just like the transition metal ground states:

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My second question is the following: In the term schemes for transition and lanthanide metals, all filled shells and subshells are discarded, so we are only looking at d-d-transitions and f-f-transitions of their respective term symbols if I understood correctly.

But below the f- and d-orbitals there are other orbitals (for example 2s) which could also do electronic transitions (at much higher energies of course). How are they described?

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