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Question:

What are the possible aldehydes and ketones with molecular formula $\ce{C5H10O$ (including the stereoisomers)?

Answer: 5 aldehydes and 3 ketones

The degree of unsaturation of the compound is 1, so the ketone part is understandable since you take a carbon chain of length 5 and we have 3 possibilities for attaching double bond oxygen.

For the aldehyde part, I'm having trouble drawing the isomers.

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Aldehydes

Structure IUPAC Name Common Name(s)
pentanal structure Pentanal Valeraldehyde, n-butyl aldehyde
3-methyl butanal structure 3-methylbutanal Iso-butyl aldehyde, isovaleraldehyde
pialaldehyde structure Pivalaldehyde Neopentanal, tert-butyl aldehyde
R 2 methyl butanal structure (R)-2-methylbutanal R-sec-butyl aldehyde
S 2 methyl butanal (S)-2-methylbutanal S-sec-butyl aldehyde

Ketones

Structure IUPAC Name Common Name(s)
pentane 2 one structure Pentane-2-one Methyl n-propyl ketone, methyl propyl ketone
pentane 3 one structure Pentane-3-one Diethylketone (DEK), dimethyl acetone, metacetone
3 methyl butane 2 one structure 3-methylbutan-2-one Iso-propyl methyl ketone, MIPK
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