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I know the lowest possible temperature in nature is 0 K although we have been able to only getting ever closer and closer to it but not at 0 K.

But on the opposite spectrum of temperature, what is the highest that is achievable naturally or artificially? Is chemistry still relevant at this temperature as we know it or is it senseless to think of any typical reaction to take place.

My best guess is plasma followed by nuclear fusion as it creates heavier elements but I am not certain.

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    $\begingroup$ This isnt really a chemistry question because it cannot be answered by the rules of chemistry,try asking it at Physics SE. $\endgroup$
    – Volpina
    May 24, 2023 at 3:51
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    $\begingroup$ Totally irrelevant to chemistry, but interesting. It might be better to ask what is the highest T relevant to chemistry, but that is likely vague or opinion based and depends on definition of T, what you consider relevant to chemistry, and bond strengths. $\endgroup$
    – Buck Thorn
    May 24, 2023 at 4:00
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    $\begingroup$ Well bonds are broken much much lower than the highest possible temperature.After the first 10^-20 seconds in the early universe even when the electroweak symmetry was broken and the Higgs field gave mass to any particles around , the universe was just a soup of particles.The temperature was so high a bound state could not be formed. $\endgroup$
    – Volpina
    May 24, 2023 at 4:01
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    $\begingroup$ @BuckThorn Thanks for appreciation. But you are right. I am afraid even with your suggested edit, it might not become a well received question. $\endgroup$ May 24, 2023 at 4:07
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    $\begingroup$ @BuckThorn chemistry.stackexchange.com/questions/173880/… $\endgroup$
    – Mithoron
    May 24, 2023 at 12:55

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One can look for highest temperature of the universe in a singularity of a black hole where the energy density is infinite according to General Relativity but super high and finite according to the correct theory of quantum gravity.

At that point because the energy density is so high electromagnetism is not anymore a fundamental force but is unified with the weak force to form the electroweak force.

Because the symmetry of the electroweak force is not broken,the Higgs field no longer gives mass to the particles and chemistry doesnt exist there at that point.

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  • $\begingroup$ Except we don't know the "correct" theory of quantum gravity. What we have suggests there isn't any singularity at all. $\endgroup$
    – Mithoron
    Oct 25, 2023 at 19:56

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