Information about liquefied carbon factories from carbon dioxide

I am looking for some information about the factories that turn CO2 gas into the liquid CO2. I want to know the methods that they are using. Can anyone help me?

Thanks

If you compress a gas in a syringe at $$20°$$C, its temperature increases a bit (say $$+ 10$$ °C). If you now maintain the pressure and let the compressed gas cool down, its temperature goes slowly back to its original value ($$20$$°C). If you now release the pressure, the gas temperature will decrease down to say +$$10$$°C : temperature drop is equal to minus the heating step during compression.

If you now repeat this same experiment with another syringe containing another compressed gas cooled down to $$20°$$C, the first cold syringe ($$10°$$C) can be used to cool down the second one down to say $$15°$$C. By releasing the pressure of this compressed and cold gas, this second gas goes down to +$$5°$$C.

Repeating this process over and over with a lot of syringes, you can go down to as low temperatures as you want it. Of course this phenomena stops when the gas is cold enough to become a liquid or a solid.

I think you mean dry ice; solid carbon dioxide, not carbon. It is made very cold and freezes. At atmospheric pressure carbon dioxide sublimes, no liquid; gas to solid. Look up a CO2 phase diagram. Not as cold as natural gas separation or air separation.

• I wouldn’t assume the question is about dry ice. CO2 is transported as a liquid in bulk May 15 at 20:22
• Not at atmospheric pressure. Actually CO2 liquid pipelines are a very special case requiring crack arresters every few miles. May 15 at 23:54
• Liquid CO2 is also transported by ship. Obviously not at atmospheric pressure. May 16 at 0:36
• Ships seem unlikely., it would require 100 psi pressure vessels or insulation. Both expensive for a cheap commodity like CO2. Pipeline applications are CO2 wells which can be pressured into pipeline and shipped to oil producing areas where it is used for third stage recovery by injecting into wells . May 16 at 15:40
• The volume shipped is small, but it happens. Typically food grade CO2. Ships are similar to LPG tankers. See for example gcaptain.com/mol-invests-in-liquid-co2-shipping-line May 16 at 17:31