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Is the corrosive nature of acid relative to some substance quantifiable like acid dissociation constant ($K_\mathrm{a}$)? If yes, what can be used to describe the corrosive nature of an acid?

For example, it is known that citric acid is far less corrosive than, say, sulfuric acid. But, can it be quantified? Also, if corrosiveness can be quantified, then can the caustic nature of bases be quantified too?

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In addition to the acid dissociation constant, some other factors that add to the corrosiveness of an acid are its ability to act as an oxidizing agent and its affinity for water (hence, ability to dehydrate material). Concentrated sulfuric acid has both these abilities in addition to simply being a strong acid. I do not know if these factors have been quantified, but they could be.

Mixing chromic oxide ($\ce{CrO3}$) with sulfuric acid makes it an even better oxidizing agent, especially when hot - so-called - "cleaning solution" is great in the lab for removing residues of tar from your glassware, but it is rather dangerously corrosive and has to be handled very carefully.

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