Techron is a detergent based on PEA, polyeter amine. It is a complex synthetic molecule that will basically 'loosen' and 'solve' deposits in your fuel system. They then become part of the fuel-air mixture and burn in the combustion chamber with it. Be it in the carburettor, the injectors, the valves (for indirect injection vehicles) or the combustion chamber.
The Techron fuel you buy at the Chevron or Texaco stations has only a small amount of Techron added, the rest is just gas/petrol. You can also buy the Techron in seperate high concentrate bottles (typically 12oz.) These bottles contain up to 35% of PEA.
But the working ingrediënt PEA is just as well used in Gum-Out, Amsoil and a bunch of other fuel system cleaners.
So yes, it is a difference to fuel which doesn't have these detergent but every major gas producer (Shell, BP, Chevron, Texaco, ...) will add detergents. They ARE different detergents so they do make a difference.
In fact they are just auxiliary tools to keep your engine working well. It is like a band-aid. It does help tune up your engine, but it helps a lot more to do proper maintenance, change coolant and oil regularly, make sure your radiator works well so your engine operating temp isn't too high, clean your air filter and fuel filter regularly,...
Using these fuels does have an effect eg for emissions testing, but If you ask me. I just buy the cheapest fuel and I will add a bottle of High concentrate Techron or Gumout or another cleaner before I go to an emissions test (make sure you drive about 60 miles before turning up since the deposits have to be burnt before the test). And if you really want to use it, buy a bunch of high concentrate bottles and add them to supermarket gas, that's basically the same