Materials and Apparatus:

  1. wheat flour
  2. sugar
  3. dry yeast
  4. glass bowl
  5. covering plate
  6. milk


  1. Lukewarm milk is taken in the glass bowl and sugar is added to it. Then, yeast is added to the same.
  2. The mixture is left undisturbed for 10-12 minutes to activate the yeast
  3. 3 cups of wheat flour are added to the bowl containing the milk mixture.
  4. The mixture is mixed thoroughly with 100ml of added water and the dough is kneaded well
  5. The dough is placed in a bowl, covered with a plate and left undisturbed for 2 hours.

My query/confusion:

  1. Why is milk needed?
  2. "activated yeast"- what's the difference?
  3. Can yeast work without sugar or milk.
  4. Detail out the stages of the anaerobic oxidative process which takes place as a common first step in both aerobic and anaerobic respiration.
  5. Finally, feel free to share anything I may be missing which should be here.

If you have any confusion regarding what I want to ask, please ask in the comments. Please upvote if you are curious about it too😊😊

  • 3
    $\begingroup$ This should be posted in seasoned advice.SE $\endgroup$ Commented Jul 29, 2021 at 11:53
  • $\begingroup$ What do you know about the topic already? When is your deadline? $\endgroup$
    – Karsten
    Commented Jul 29, 2021 at 11:53

1 Answer 1

  1. milk is not needed, 'pure' bread is without milk
  2. yeast is a fungus, therefore, it is alive. Its best to work with fresh yeast, which you find as small cubes in the refrigerated section. This one does not have to be activated. non-fresh yeast is dried, so in order for it to work properly, it has to be undried by adding water, which is called activation.
  3. and 4. As said before, milk is not needed. Sugar however is the food for the yeast, without it, it does nothing. In aerobic breathing, the yeast metabolizes the sugar as we would: sugar + oxygen -> water + CO2. Without oxygen, the yeast resorts to ethanol fermentation: sugar -> alcohol + CO2 (this is, why it is used to make beer or wine). For making bread, we have a mixture of both respirations, which does not really matter, since we are only interested in the CO2, which makes the dough fluffy =) But without sugar, there is no CO2.

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