At very dilute concentrations, the solvating power of water overcomes the natural tendency of surfactant molecules to agglomerate into a separate phase. The shear numerical excess of water molecules just about totally dissociates the bulk surfactant and dissolves it as separate molecules. So a mixture of surfactant and water can be a true solution - clear and homogeneous.
However, as the concentration of surfactant increases, aggregates form (micelles) which can absorb oleophilic molecules (e.g., the polymers in the formula). With sufficient surfactant, the polymer is dispersed enough and into small enough micelles to appear clear. In the second graph, the knee of the curve is at the CMC; at this point, the aqueous phase is saturated with single molecules and some are beginning to stick together, starting to be able to contain polymer.
To get to the point: Your floor cleaner needs to be concentrated enough to work well. This suggests that there is enough surfactant to exert a solvent effect on the polymer, dispersing the chains, separating the molecules, making the smallest dimension significantly less than a wavelength of light. The original floor cleaner product could appear clear to the eye. Addition of a little of the product to a lot of water reduces the micelle formation of the surfactants by favoring dissolution of single surfactant molecules: the polymer chains then have fewer surfactant molecules to surround them. Polymer molecules escape, agglomerate and become visible - but only a little, since you can reverse the process.
A more delicate detection method is to use the Tyndall effect: in a darkened room, shine a narrow beam of light through a liquid (say from a single LED flashlight). The beam may be visible, much like a flashlight beam in a smoky room, and can detect some materials at levels in the ppm range (e.g., milk in water).
I suspect your floor cleaner would be represented by the middle test tube in the series of five. Small micelles are present but the liquid seems clear, and will seem to have a small or negligible Tyndall effect. The polymers will be dissolved in the many micelles, which are too small yet to be very visible. When you dilute, you go to the left one step, the surfactant becomes more dispersed into single molecules, exerting less solvent power on the polymer. Either the micelles grow so large as to become visible, or actually collapse, allowing the polymer molecules to agglomerate.
Adding formula back to the mixture increases the surfactant (the solvent power), redisperses the polymer molecules into tiny micelles, and the liquid becomes clear again. The key (hypothesis) is that the pure polymer dispersion would be cloudy by virtue of its large particle size (~1 micron?), but a high enough surfactant concentration makes the formula essentially clear by generating micelles much smaller than the wavelength of light.