My teacher gave the explanation stating that consider that first the nitrogen in lower state is oxidised to $\ce{N2}$ and then the further oxidation would stop as the $\ce{N-N}$ bond energy of $\ce{N2}$ is very high and can't be overcome under normal conditions.

But my doubt is can't the nascent nitrogen (formed during the formation of $\ce{N2})$ react further with $\ce{O2}$ and get oxidised to some higher oxides like $\ce{NO2}$ or $\ce{N2O}?$

The Latimer diagram shows that it is possible for oxygen to oxidise the nitrogen to higher states:

Latimer diagram Of nitrogen

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    $\begingroup$ I don't think they do. If you search "combustion products of triethylamine" for example you will find phrases such as "Combustion products include: carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), other pyrolysis products typical of burning organic material." $\endgroup$ – Waylander Jan 26 at 8:53
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    $\begingroup$ Additionally, NOx is created during gas engine combustion from aerial N2, as equilibrium N2 + O2 <=> 2 NO is not so strongly shifted to the left at high temperatures. $\endgroup$ – Poutnik Jan 26 at 9:13
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    $\begingroup$ Side note: "nascent nitrogen" is an obsolete term used to explain high reactivity in certain cases long time ago. These days, it's more appropriate to call it by what it really is: atomic nitrogen. $\endgroup$ – andselisk Jan 26 at 9:13
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    $\begingroup$ What else could it be? All nitrogen oxides are endothermic. I mean, yeah, they would form to some tiny extent, but not as the major product. $\endgroup$ – Ivan Neretin Jan 26 at 9:50
  • $\begingroup$ @govind Note that atomic nitrogen would help with kinetics. But it must fight the thermodynamics in the first place. Molecular nitrogen is thermodynamically highly preferred, forming nitrogen oxides just as minor compounds. $\endgroup$ – Poutnik Jan 26 at 9:54

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