Ordinary Batteries will deplete most of their Power in a 10 year period. What happens to rechargeable Batteries? How long would they still functin properly?

Hope this is the right community for this question. If you need a specific example:

Powertoll Battery: https://www.metabo.com/ch/de/zubehoer/zubehoer-akkumaschinen/akkupacks/lihd/akkupack-lihd-18-v-10-0-ah-625549000.html

1.5v Battery https://www.energizer.com/batteries/energizer-rechargeable-batteries

Stored in an airsealed container, decent temperature & humidity. And lets say we charge & deplete them 3x per year.

Just to be sure, I'm not asking how many charges they will survive, but after how many decades they are still usable.

  • $\begingroup$ There is no answer to this question. Because the answer depends on you. It depends on the care you used. If you short-circuited it, only once, it will be unusable anymore. $\endgroup$ – Maurice Dec 10 '20 at 11:00
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    $\begingroup$ How about storing the components of a battery separately for 10 years, and then assembling it? It could be a simple zinc/copper Daniel cell, for example. $\endgroup$ – Karsten Theis Dec 10 '20 at 17:50
  • $\begingroup$ @Maurica I literally gave 2 examples of batteries and 1 example of its use & care. $\endgroup$ – AzulShiva Dec 14 '20 at 13:20
  • $\begingroup$ @KarstenTheis I would have to get into that, thanks for the idea $\endgroup$ – AzulShiva Dec 14 '20 at 13:20

It mostly depend on battery type, and after that current. Batteries usually dislike very high currents, that would make them charge or discharge faster than in 1 hour, because of heating and secondary reactions, and very low currents, that would make them discharge in a year, because of dendrite formation.

Worst type of battery for decade long work are lithium-ion batteries. Their decay is mostly due to time and temperature, rather than cycles used. Exact opposite of your goal. NiCd, NiMH are less energy dense, they also will need additional 3 recharges per year due to self-discharge. All of them lose about half of their maximum capacity in 3 years. Li-ion because of degradation due to temperature. NiCd and NiMH bevause of large self discharge.

LiFePO4 is significantly longer living battery than li-ion. Lead-acid bartery is somewhat similar for your usage. They will lose about half of their capacity in 10 years. They achieve it in a different way. Lead-acid has significant self-discharge, needing an additional recharge every year, but its bulky and degradation takes a long time to affect it all. LiFePO4 is the opposite, very delicate, low self discharge, and degradation is just slower in general. At this timeframe your device will become obsolete.

Lithium titanate, LTO, is probably the best of what we have today for your usage. It is very durable and degrades very slowly. Its hard to put an estimate on this, but i guess you can expect about 25 years till half of it maximum capacity is gone. At this time frame wires will rust away first.

If you need even longer working time, you could check supercapacitors. They have 10 times less energy density, but they will work till their shell is rusted away. About 50 years till half of of them are rusted. They also need 100 recharges per year due to self discharge.

If you want even longer life, check ordinary capacitors and compound filled PCB. Capacity is 100 times less than batteries. Those will work till UV, ozone and moisture will destroy the compound or wires going to the board. At this time frame your smart PCB components are likely to fail first. About 100 years. Will need a few recharges per year due to selfdischarge.

For longer still, will need something exotic, like flywheels and magnetic levitation in a vacuum chamber.

  • $\begingroup$ Thanks for the answer however it is not accurate according to my observations. My 5 year old Li-Ion 4AH Metabo power tool battery still has practically 100% of its maximum capacity. According to you it should be down to 30-40%. I tested by using them in my battery powered vacuum cleaner and timed with a stopwatch to find out how long it will run (still 15 1/2 minutes). They are rated 72wH and fully charge in less then 5 minutes. I am doing this now for every battery pack and will keep track on how long the vacuum cleaner runs every consecutive year. $\endgroup$ – AzulShiva Dec 14 '20 at 13:10
  • $\begingroup$ There are about 10 li-ion types, and I ment the most popular one. And Metaboo is using some special battery type that they call LiHD, with improved lifetime and other parameters. I cant find what they use exactly. Another thing to account for is that powertool may work with reduced speed if battery voltage is lower due to aging. $\endgroup$ – Surprised Seagull Dec 14 '20 at 15:32

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