When I am studying magnetic properties in IB Chemistry, what particularly puzzles me is ferromagnetism. In my textbook, what accounts for paramagnetism in transition metals is unpaired electrons in their d orbitals. I suppose that ferromagnetism also comes from a particular electron configuration. I'm wondering why osmium isn't ferromagnetic, given that it is in the same group as iron, and has the same d-orbital configuration?

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    $\begingroup$ It's actually more relevant to physics SE. IN a nutshell, ferromagnetism is derived from isolated partially-filled d- (or f-) subshells interacting through a single electron. (interaction through a pair of electrons usualy leads to antiferromagnetism) This means that not only ferromagnetism requires partially filled shell, but also that shell should be too compact to be involved into interatomic interactions. This is the case for iron, but not for osmium. f-shell of lantanides also is fairly compact so many of them are ferromagnetic as well. $\endgroup$ – permeakra Nov 8 at 16:09
  • $\begingroup$ I removed the second paragraph since it made the question too broad $\endgroup$ – A.K. Nov 14 at 12:01
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    $\begingroup$ A number of things have to go right for a material to be ferromagnetic - just having partially-filled subshells isn't enough. See for example this Minute Physics/Veritasium video for an accessible overview. $\endgroup$ – Nicolau Saker Neto Nov 14 at 12:11

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