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I know that formic acid will dehydrate upon heating to 100°C (under normal pressure) or adding sulfuric acid. What other catalysts can be used to induce this reaction?

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  1. Activated alumina, silica, thoriated silica gel, phosphorus pentoxide-silica gel, aluminum phosphate, titanium dioxide

    Catalytic Dehydration of Formic Acid, E. G. Graeber and D. S. Cryder Industrial & Engineering Chemistry 1935 27 (7), 828-831, DOI: 10.1021/ie50307a019

    Mechanism of dehydration decomposition of formic acid over alumina and silica. Adsorption measurements during the catalytic reaction, Kenzo Fukuda, Yuko Noto, Takaharu Onishi and Kenzi Tamaru, Trans. Faraday Soc., 1967,63, 3072-3080, DOI: 10.1039/TF9676303072

  2. Mixed titanium-vanadium oxide

    Sadovskaya, Ekaterina & Chesalov, Yuriy & Goncharov, V. & Sobolev, Vladimir & Andrushkevich, Tamara. (2017). Formic acid decomposition over V-Ti oxide catalyst: Mechanism and kinetics. Molecular Catalysis. 430. 52-64. 10.1016/j.molcata.2016.12.010

  3. Various homogenous transition metal catalysts

    Homogeneous Catalytic Dehydrogenation of Formic Acid: Progress Towards a Hydrogen-Based Economy, Gábor Laurenczy, Paul J. Dyson, J. Braz. Chem. Soc. vol.25 no.12 São Paulo Dec. 2014, DOI: 10.5935/0103-5053.20140235

  4. Monoclinic bismuth chromate hydroxide proto-catalyst, $\ce{m-Bi(OH)CrO4}$

    Two-step catalytic dehydrogenation of formic acid to CO2 via formaldehyde, Viasus et. al., International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Volume 44, Issue 3, January 2019, Pages 1534-1543, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2018.11.178

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