# How does a body lose electrons? [closed]

If there is a Na and cl in solid form , There will be atoms inside of them.How do they lose electrons ?.We know solid body has a structure and covering.Just like you can touch is the covering of table that is its outer part.Do we touch the electrons or the atom as we touch a body?.When a body loses electrons from a body,does it mean it loses a part of its structure and when it gains , does it gain some part of other structure body.How does this process happen?

• What is it that you want to know about that "how"? Do atoms have small robotic arms, much like Mars rovers? No, they don't. The electrons are mostly driven around by electric fields. – Ivan Neretin Oct 14 '20 at 8:27
• When atoms lose electrons, How is it done? – srijan Sri Oct 14 '20 at 8:28
• How do the atoms come out of a body ? – srijan Sri Oct 14 '20 at 8:29
• What is happening if you visualise it ? – srijan Sri Oct 14 '20 at 8:31
• We can't see nuclei and electrons, but we can measure their effect on their surroundings. The theory is that these are independent quantum mechanical particles. You can think of electrons as flying about attracted by nuclei and repelled by other electrons. They are constrained by the balance of attraction and repulsion. They have only so much energy, so they can't go too far from nuclei, maybe in a metallic solid they can hop between neighboring nuclear attractors. If you put enough energy into them though you free them to fly off and interact with more distant atoms. – Buck Thorn Oct 14 '20 at 10:52

Now the non-metals, like chlorine gas, hold onto their electrons more tightly - no sea there. Sort of like dry land. Put a chlorine molecule next to the clump of sodium (or a copper wire!), and all of a sudden, the molecule realizes (well, it would, if it had a brain) that it would be more stable if it just split and each chlorine atom grabbed an electron from this sea in the metal. Who would notice? Well, after this occurs a few million times, the chlorine anions find that they can develop a structure by including some sodium cations (sodium atoms without their outermost electron). This results in a greater stability, so the overall process is that a number of sodium atoms transfer their electrons to chlorine molecules to generate sodium chloride crystals. The actual mechanism is probably way more complex - perhaps the chlorine molecule picks up the electron first, then gets bumped and falls apart into a chlorine anion and a chlorine atom which immediately picks up another electron. The actual process can be investigated, but the result is still formation of $$NaCl$$.