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I have seen my textbooks always give formula and description of hybridization of central atom of a molecule. But I wonder will other atoms present (not Hydrogen) go in hybridization or only the central atom only uses hybrid orbital and other use pure orbital?

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Yes, all atoms with p or d orbitals can hybridize in a molecule, not just the central atom. Take acetone for example, the carbonyl carbon is $\ce{sp^2}$ hybridized and the carbonyl oxygen is also $\ce{sp^2}$ hybridized. Another example is methyl chloride, the methyl carbon is $\ce{sp^3}$ hybridized and the chlorine is also $\ce{sp^3}$ hybridized. As a final example consider dimethyl ether, each of the carbon atoms is $\ce{sp^3}$ hybridized and the central oxygen is also $\ce{sp^3}$ hybridized.

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  • $\begingroup$ Ok,then can I say all atoms in a molecule use hybridised orbitals instead of pure atomic orbitals? $\endgroup$ – user5764 Jun 29 '14 at 5:28
  • $\begingroup$ How to find the state of hybridization of other atoms apart from central atom? $\endgroup$ – user5764 Jun 29 '14 at 6:13
  • $\begingroup$ For your first question, the answer is "yes" when we are talking about orbitals that 1) contain electrons and 2) are used to form bonds. For your second question, look at the various bond angles (including those involving hydrogen) around the atom in question. From this information you can infer hybridization. For example, if the angles around an atom are all 120 degrees, then the atom is $\ce{sp^2}$ hybridized. See my answer here for a more detailed example chemistry.stackexchange.com/questions/10653/… $\endgroup$ – ron Jun 29 '14 at 13:03
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    $\begingroup$ I do partially disagree with that: Terminal atoms are almost always (lack of external field) better described as having at the most sp hybrid orbitals. In acetone the oxygen would therefore (roughly) have 1 sp hybrid orbital forming the sigma bond, 1 p orbital for the pi bond, 1 perpendicular p orbital for the lone pair (stabilised by hyperconjugation), another sp lone pair orbital. $\endgroup$ – Martin - マーチン Aug 7 '17 at 4:58
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Hybridization is the rearrangement of the orbitals predicted by the Schrodinger Equations to coincide with the observed orbital arrangements. So any atom with electrons in the S and P orbitals (lithium and heavier elements) can have hybridization rearrangements.

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