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What's the meaning of the triangle and striped line in this structure of $\ce{H3O+}$:

enter image description here

Can someone suggest me a site to learn about this?

(I'm quite a novice in chemistry.)

Thanks

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    $\begingroup$ The part of this answer already fully adresses your question, and this comment provides references. Alternatively, look up wedge and dash notation in any organic chemistry textbook or in the internet. $\endgroup$
    – andselisk
    Commented Aug 13, 2020 at 5:29
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    $\begingroup$ @andselisk IMO, this question is a duplicate of that. $\endgroup$ Commented Aug 13, 2020 at 5:47
  • $\begingroup$ @NilayGhosh That was also my initial thought, but I refrained from single-handedly closing this one as a duplicate since in What are the meanings of dotted and wavy lines in structural formulas? OP explicitly mentions that they are already aware of the wedge and dash notation. Let the community decide. $\endgroup$
    – andselisk
    Commented Aug 13, 2020 at 5:56
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    $\begingroup$ Does this answer your question? What are the meanings of dotted and wavy lines in structural formulas? $\endgroup$
    – Mithoron
    Commented Aug 17, 2020 at 0:00
  • $\begingroup$ @Mithoron Oh yes $\endgroup$
    – Shub
    Commented Aug 17, 2020 at 3:32

1 Answer 1

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It is the way how to display the 3D structure of molecules on the 2D plane.

Imagine that

  • Atomic bonds represented by a normal line are placed on the plane of a paper/screen.
  • Atomic bonds represented by triangles point toward you from the plane.
  • Atomic bonds represented by stripes point behind the plane.

It is frequently used in organic chemistry, where the particular 3D structure matters, especially for optically active molecules (Their mirror image is not the identical molecule).

See the andselisk comment above.

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  • $\begingroup$ But how will I show the double and triple bonds then? $\endgroup$
    – Shub
    Commented Aug 13, 2020 at 13:37
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    $\begingroup$ Arrange them to be in the plane :-) E.g. both ethene and ethyne are planar. $\endgroup$
    – Poutnik
    Commented Aug 13, 2020 at 13:39

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