It is a good question and many comprehensive works are available specifically on chemical etymologies. Many scholars have spent on portion of their life on chemical etymologies. Ignore these useless down votes or close votes. The answer essentially boils down to how money are you willing to spend? I would say, if you are really keen, go for OED.
After going through so many etymological dictionaries of science (mainly chemistry & mathematics), I still feel that the Unabridged Oxford Dictionary (> 20 volumes) is the best (https://www.oed.com/). It is not available for public use but one can buy subscription for a year at an affordable price. Most universities have it. There you can find the etymology for sure, the best part is that you can see the earliest use with original reference.
I will give you a taste of it. Say you want to find out where does the word alcohol come from? You can extend this that the suffix -ol indicates alcohol group. Perhaps it is too much for you but you can see the extent of depth of analysis. It is sometimes surprising that there might be no connection of older meanings with current meanings.
post-classical Latin alcohol, alcool, alcol, alcofol kohl (galena
(lead sulphide) or stibnite (antimony sulphide)) (from 13th cent. in
British sources), spirit, essence obtained by distillation (a1527 in
Paracelsus in alcool vini , also alcohol vini ) (perhaps via Spanish
alcohol: see below) < Arabic al-kuḥl , Spanish Arabic al-kuḥul < al
the + kuḥl , Spanish Arabic kuḥul eye cosmetic, also denoting various
specific substances used as eye cosmetics or eye unguents (compare
kohl n.1) < the same base as Arabic kaḥala, Hebrew kāḥal (in the Bible
only in an isolated attestation in Ezekiel 23:40), both in sense ‘to
stain, to paint’, Akkadian guḫlu antimony (used as eye paint).
Compare Middle French alcohol, (rare) alcofol, French alcool,
†alcohol, †alcol, †alkol, †alkool, etc., the chief senses of which
are: ‘kohl, very fine powder’ (c1370 in a translation of Chauliac; the
precise sense is often difficult to determine in early quots.),
‘essence obtained by distillation’ (1620, originally and chiefly with
reference to spirit of wine), ‘ethanol’ (1792), ‘any of the members of
a similar class of chemical compounds’ (1834: see note below). Compare
also Spanish alcohol (c1200 as †alcofor; also †alcofol, †alcool,
†alcol, etc.), the chief senses of which are: ‘powder used as eye
cosmetic’ (c1200 as †alcofor), ‘galena, sulphide of lead’ (1541),
‘antimony, also any of various minerals containing antimony,
especially stibnite’ (a1555 or earlier; in a number of early instances
denoting minerals (from the second half of the 12th cent.) it is
impossible to tell whether the word denotes galena (sulphide of lead)
or antimony sulphide), ‘spirit of wine, ethanol’ (1730), ‘any of the
members of a similar class of chemical compounds’ (1865).
On your specific query
< carbon n. + -yl suffix. Compare French carbonyle (1856 or earlier),
German Carbonyl (1854 or earlier).
Further probing of -yl
Formerly occasionally -ule, a terminal element of chemical terms, <
German -yl, < Greek ὕλη wood, matter, substance (see hyle n.), used
for ‘chemical principle, radical’. It was introduced by Wöhler and
Liebig ( Ann. der Pharm. (1832) III. 262), and first used by them in
the term benzoyl; other early names were éthyle (éthule), élayle
(Berzelius), dadyle, peucyle, citronyle, citryle (Blanchet and Sell).
Some fifteen in anglicized form, including acetyl, amyl, cinnamyl,
glyceryl, salicyl, appear in the Elements of Chemistry by T. Graham,
- If you find OED too much to digest, the next best etymological dictionary of chemistry is
Elsevier's Dictionary of Chemoetymology (1st Edition) The Whys and Whences of Chemical Nomenclature and Terminology by Alexander Senning.
It has 400 pages. For example, the entry aniline shows
aniline C6H7N, derived from al-nil (Arabic: indigo plant), ultimately
from nila (Sanskrit: dark blue) – referring to the fact that aniline
was first obtained by degradation of indigo
- The next one, which focussed on organic chemistry is
Organic Chemistry: The Name Game Modern Coined Terms and Their Origins (1st Edition)
by Alex Nickon and Ernest F. Silversmith,
This has plenty of fancy organic molecules from modern organic chemistry but at the end, they do list traditional names for example for benzene
benzene from Styrax benzoin, a tree native to Sumatra and Java. The
bark yields a resin, gum benzoin, from which "benzoic acid" was
obtained. Peligot (1833) and E. Mitscherlich (1834) heated benzoic
acid with lime to form C6H6; Mitscherlich named it "benzine." Liebig
preferred "benzol," but Laurent (1835) proposed "benzene."
Coming to free rides. Dr. John Andraos made a series of webpages by the name Modern Coined Glossary of Coined Names & Terms Used in Science to which I had heavily contributed more than a decade ago.
Here is a link: http://www.careerchem.com/NAMED/Glossary-Coined-Names.pdf
Another free source is Dr. William B. Jensen's lovely book "Ask the Historian". Simply Google "Ask the historian Jensen" and the first result is his book. He explain a lot of names, and even history of concepts. It was kind of him to make this book free of all of us. He has retired and he is no longer active.