In heterolytic cleavage, for instance, $\ce{NaCl}$ breaks in two fragments $\ce{Na+}$ and $\ce{Cl-}$. If chlorine is fully filled because it takes one electron from sodium, then why does chlorine make further bonds to other species?

My question is: Which is more stable, the chlorine atom (17 protons and 17 electrons) or the chlorine ion (17 protons and 18 electrons)?

  • $\begingroup$ RE: "If Chlorine is full filled because it takes one electron from sodium ,now chlorine is full filled then why further chlorine makes bonds to other species ?" -- Huh? Yes a $\ce{Cl-}$ ion will react with some ions or compounds. But if you dissolve ethanol and NaCl in water no chlorocarbon compound will form. So a $\ce{Cl-}$ ion doesn't react willy-nilly with everything. $\endgroup$ – MaxW Apr 3 at 7:11
  • $\begingroup$ I asked which is more stable ? If chlorine have already full filled shell then why reacts to some other species to make compound. $\endgroup$ – Priyanshu Apr 3 at 9:40
  • $\begingroup$ Species make compound to make more stable but in that case chlorine is stable in ion state! $\endgroup$ – Priyanshu Apr 3 at 9:46
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    $\begingroup$ You are trying to compare apples with oranges on the scale of vegetable. There is no such thing as absolute stability. Especially anions are very seldom the most stable in gas phase. $\endgroup$ – Martin - マーチン Apr 3 at 10:44

Chlorine is more stable in ion state than in the neutral atom. But it is only more stable with respect to its own electrons. For the rest of the world it has one negative charge in excess. So, stable or not, it attracts positive charges like Na+ or any other positive ion. You cannot avoid that it will produce neutral assemblies of atoms, like NaCl. It is not a question of stability.

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