It is pretty easy to find information about the actual hazards of a chemical in the SDS, but I have been struggling to sort out which classifications require that the compound be handled differently, especially when it comes to disposing of waste. I'd like to be able to determine what the restrictions on a chemical are by reading the SDS. For reference, I am in the USA. I know it varies state-by-state, but I am just looking for the "average" protocol, or else just the federal requirements.
For example, I calibrate/check water quality sensors. Some sensors are calibrated with NaCl, which obviously I can pour down the drain. For others I use less common/experimental stuff like p-Toluenesulfonic acid monohydrate as a stable substitute for quinine sulfate. In this case, the SDS clearly says not to pour it down the drain. What I am wondering about is how to interpret the myriad of different hazard classifications shown below, and which of them sets the legal requirement that it not be poured down the drain.
Chemical waste is not common where I work, which is why I need to be able to determine before I buy something whether I'll need to find a disposal service to handle it.