It's all about the energy levels of electrons. Electrons exist in different energy levels and each energy level can only be occupied by a specific number of electrons (google quantum theory).
Example: Neon has an electron configuration of $1s^2 2s^2 1p^6$, which simply means that it has a full $1s$ orbital (the maximum is 2 electrons as denoted by the superscript), and has a full valence shell which is the $2s$ and $1p$ orbitals (which is the valence shell for molecules in row 2).
Now for neon to lose an electron (to bond) it would have to take an electron out of a full orbital ($1p$), which is what makes molecules reactive (a non-full valence shell), and would just take the electron right back.
Think of Ne$^+$ as more electronegative (wanting electrons) than elemental Fluorine, so it will pull an electron from almost anything and go back to its elemental form.
If this answer is not satisfactory then I can explain further, without diving head first into quantum theory.