My textbook, Solid-State Physics, Fluidics, and Analytical Techniques in Micro- and Nanotechnology, by Madou, says the following:
X-ray analysis reveals the symmetries of crystals (lattice type), distances between atomic planes (lattice parameter), the positions of atoms in crystals, the types of atoms from the intensities of diffracted x-rays, and the degree of crystallinity (ordering).
I found this quite fascinating. Do we really have technology with the resolution to distinguish between layers of single atoms of materials? In other words, we can tell when one layer of single atoms ends and the next layer of single atoms begins, and analyse them as such?