The third ortho effect is, according to Wikipedia, the phenomenon where in a ring with a meta and an ortho-para director both meta to each other has the incoming nucleophile go ortho to the meta director rather than para. Why is this? I would think that the ortho-to-meta position would be destabilized due to a stronger inductive effect.

  • $\begingroup$ There was no good explanation of this effect known as of 2001, according to this textbook: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6236433 I don't know if one has been found since. $\endgroup$ – atbm Dec 31 '19 at 17:25

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