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Why is silicon oxide giant covalent structure? Why it doesn't bond like carbon dioxide?

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Carbon dioxide is a molecule with double bonds.

Elements of 3+ rows are not happy with double bonds, they prefer single bonds unless you delve into hypervalent compounds like $H_2SO_4$ where 'double bonds' are actually dative singular bonds.

The reason for it is that pi-orbitals for 3+ rows are very diffuse, making overall overlapping with p-orbitals of 2-rows extremely ineffective

For this reason, $SiO_2$ forms structure with only singular Si-O bonds. It happens so that for it the only way to form one is to make 3-d infinite structure.

For similar reason $N_2O_5$ is exactly like this in gase phase while $P_2O_5$ forms tetrahedric $P_4O_{10}$ and $SO_3$ loves to form trimers and chains.

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