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What is the scientific term for the separation of dust particles from air by suction through a specialized flask in a way similar to the operation of a bong?

The thing that led me to this was a vacuum cleaner that uses water to separate dust and other particles from the air by vacuuming the air through a water bowl, and the only thing that is similar to that operation is the bong. It is like sparging, but the gas coming in will contain particles and those particles are the ones that remain in the liquid, and that same gas is the one coming out, filtered to some degree from those unwanted particles.

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I think the term describing the initial process of separation of the solid phase (dust particles) from the gas phase via bubbling is a wet scrubbing process.

On an industrial scale, it's more efficient to spray liquid phase, whereas on a laboratory scale bubbling in a compact glass gas scrubber or a gas washing bottle is more convenient. In order to increase efficiency of the lab apparatus, it's preferred to

  • keep the surface between gas bubbles and liquid phase as large as possible;
  • increase time of contact.

This is usually achieved by producing many smaller bubbles by using a spiral tubing (larger particles), frit of long columns filled with Raschig rings.

glass gas scrubber gas washing bottle

Figure 1. Left: Büchi miniScrubber, a glass gas scrubber (Source: Büchiglas — Gas scrubber). Right: Corning PYREX® 125mL Gas Washing Bottle with Extra Coarse Fritted Disc (Source: Thomas Scientific)

Eventually collected insoluble dust particles tend to settle out from the solution; this a basis for sedimentation, another separation technique.

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