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I am quite new to the field. So try to figure out what is meant by the equilibrium state of an electrochemical cell?

Is it, where both half cells passing the same number of electrons to either side? if yes, how do the electrons transfer during non-equilibrium state (is it like, there is a net electron transfer due to electron change from both electrodes).

Any explanation would be much appreciated.

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  • $\begingroup$ At equilibrium the Ecell = 0 Volts. $\endgroup$ – M. Farooq Nov 2 at 16:27
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You should consider the Nernst equation $$ \Delta G = \Delta G^{\ominus} + RT\ln Q=- RT\ln Keq + RT\ln Q $$ At equilibrium deltaG is zero and Q the reaction coefficient is Keq also note $$ \Delta G = -nFE $$ so E is zero at equilibrium. Outside equilibrium Q will move towards K decreasing E.

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An electrochemical cell is producing electricity. So it is out of equilibrium. Reagents which are included in the cell are slowly consumed. The chemical composition of the cell changes, and will slowly tend towards equilibrium. When the reactions are finished, the cell will not produce any electricity later on. The equilibrium is obtained, and the cell is "out of use" : its chemical composition will not change any more in the future.

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