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$\ce{K2O}$ absorbs oxygen forming $\ce{K2O2},$ which decomposes to $\ce{K2O}$ and $\ce{O2}$ at 500 °C. This means that $\ce{K2O}$ can absorb up to 17% its mass of oxygen. Are there other substances that exceed this ratio and release oxygen below 1000 °C?

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If you are looking for something that can be made using elemental oxygen as an oxidizer and reversibly release the excess oxygen below 1000 °C, sodium peroxide beats potassium peroxide by using lighter metal atoms. It can be prepared by reacting sodium with oxygen in two stages (forming sodium oxide in the intermediate stage) at 130–200 °C and releases the excess oxygen at 657 °C (Wikipedia).

Lithium, magnesium and of course hydrogen form peroxides with even higher excess oxygen percentages, but these are not made via reversible reactions with elemental oxygen.

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