The figure below shows the situation between configuration for a $p^2$ configuration, terms, levels and states. The word 'state' tends to be used colloquially to mean any of Term, Level or State.
The Configuration such as $(1s)^2$ or ...$(2p)^2$ etc. tell us which orbitals are occupied.
These are split with electrostatic (Coulomb) coupling to form Terms.
The Term Symbol informs about the angular momentum. The number of levels in each Term is $(2J+1)$, the number of States is $(2L+1)(2S+1)$ .
The term symbol is
where $S$ is the total spin and $L$ the orbital angular momentum. $J$ represents the angular momentum as quantum numbers $(J=L+S)$ and is determined by adding individual spin numbers according to Glebsch-Gordon series, i.e. if $q_1,\,q_2$ are angular momentum quantum numbers then the series is all terms (separated by unit steps) with values $q_1+q_2 , q_1+q_2-1,\cdots \to |q_1-q_2|$. (There may be only be term).
The Terms are split with a magnetic interaction such as spin-orbit coupling, i.e coupling of spin angular momentum with that of the orbital. It is not present for S orbitals because here $L=0$.
Levels are distinguished by total angular momentum $J$, and are $2J+1$ degenerate.
An external magnetic field will remove all remaining degeneracy to form States. These are distinguished by $m_J$ and there are $2J+1$ of them.