I'm writing something related to basicity and came across few papers that distinguish thermodynamic and kinetic basicity.
"In particular, the study of hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) within proton sponges has provided rigorous knowledge into the inter-related roles of symmetry, resonance, and aromaticity in H-bonding, as well as a better understanding of kinetic versus thermodynamic basicity and the emergence of a more reﬁned view of the entropic and enthalpic factors contributing to H-bond strength." ( DOI:10.1021/acs.joc.5b01743 )
"There is a tendency, however, that sterically demanding proton sponges with high thermodynamic basicity with strongly protected protonation sites often have a low kinetic basicity." ( DOI:10.1021/ja052647v )
"Thus, this compound class has been the subject of considerable scientific interest challenging chemists from differentfieldstofindsuitablemethodsfortheirsynthesisand handling, evaluate their basicity strength, and understand the principles underlying the thermodynamic and kinetic foundation of their basicity."( DOI:10.1002/anie.201612446)
"The thermodynamic basicity of all newproton pincers was measured by nmr titration experiments with corresponding neutral organic super bases of known pK>25 in CD3CN, while their kinetic basicity was measured by dynamic nmr proton exchange measurements." (Activating Unreactive Substrates: The Role of Secondary Interactions, Edited by Carsten Bolm and F. Ekkehardt Hahn)
So, my questions are:
1) What is the exact distinction between these two terms?
2) Is thermodynamic basicity the one mentioned in common basicity defintions? (arrhenius, lewis, bronsted-lowry)
3) Why are they measured differently?
4) Are they denoted diferrently, do they have different units and is there some general mathematical formula for each that would help me get deeper understanding and distinction between these two terms?
5) Also, how are these two mesaures of basicity related to gas phase proton affinity and intrinsic basicity and pKb?